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We have included resources that are publicly available (open resources) and resources that are not publicly available (other resources). Those that are not available for free access are primarily academic journal articles that require either payment, or access granted through a post-secondary institution. 

We have also included a list of resources that were created for teachers and other educators. All the resources in this category are open.

We have not organized these resources according to the usual academic practice of listing them by author(s). Instead, we have provided a date for the resource, and a brief description of the information it contains.

This is not a list of all the possible resources on caribou. It is biased toward more recent resources, and more open access resources. If you think we’ve missed an important resource, please let us know.

Designated Office Evaluation Report Casino-Rude Road Construction Project

This is a recommendation by a Yukon assessment organization that denies a proposal for a new mining road that would affect two caribou herds, the Fortymile and the Klaza. The recommendation for the road project to not be allowed to proceed was based on a determination that,  "...the Project will result in, or is likely to result in significant adverse effects to Ungulates and Traditional Land Use than cannot be mitigated." The recommendation now goes to the Yukon Government and the federal Deprtment of Fisheries and Oceans for a decision. There is no direct link to this 72-page report prepared by the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Board (YESAB). The report is titled "recommendation" and is found under the "documents" tab after following the link to the project on the YESAB site.
(2024)

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FortymileRange managementHuman disturbance

measuring contaminants in northern caribou

In this 3':15" video interview, research scientist Mary Gamberg talks about a project that measures contaminants in northern caribou herds. The project focuses primarily on the Porcupine and Qamanirjuaq herds, but other herds have also been sampled. This is part of a series of four video interviews on the topic of contaminants in caribou.
(2024)

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Format: video

PorcupineBeverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundContaminants

Contaminants and eating caribou

In this one minute video research scientist Mary Gamberg talks about contaminants and eating caribou. This is part two in a series of interviews on the topic of contaminants and caribou. 
(2024)

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Format: video

Barren-groundPeopleContaminants

caribou and plastics

This 5'52 video features research scientist Mary Gamberg talking about new research into assessing microplastics in caribou. The research is just beginning and is likely the first research of its kind done on land animals in the Arctic.
(2024)

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Format: video

Barren-groundContaminants

contaminants and caribou declines

The reasons for the drastic decline of several barren ground caribou herds is difficult to unravel. There are suggestions from researchers and Indigenous knowledge holders that various factors may be to blame, including development on caribou ranges, hunting levels, predation, and several climate-driven changes including changes to forage and an increase in insect harassment. but what role may contaminants be playing in the decline of the herds? This 3':22" video addresses that question.
(2024)

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Jay Macdonald: Our Commitment to Caribou Stewardship

A Minister's statement by NWT government Minister of Environment nd Climate Change focusing on barren ground caribou. The statement includes information about a public education campaign on respectful hunting, and plans to survey three herds found in the territoriy in summer of 2024.
(2024)

Effectiveness of population-based recovery actions for threatened southern mountain caribou

This is an academic analysis of the factors affecting southern mountain caribou decline and recovery. It offers some hope, showing that some management efforts such as predator (wolf) control are helping with the recovery of some herds, but warns that the long term solution must include habitat protection and restoration. While the herds studied are smaller and more geographically limited than migratory caribou, there may be some applicability to management of northern herds.
(2024)

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Managing predatorsClimate changeHuman disturbanceNatural factors

consensus agreement respecting implementation of the management plan for northern mountain caribou in the NWT

This is an implementation agreement for the northern mountain caribou management plan in the Northwest Territories. The plan is implemented by the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board, the Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, and the Government of the Northwest Territories. Northern mountain caribou are listed as a 'species of special concern' nationally and in the NWT. The implementation lays out what parts of the management plan will be fully implemented, and what parts require additional resources.
(2024)

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Range managementClimate changeHuman disturbanceHunting

Population genetics of caribou in the Alaska-Yukon border region: implications for designation of conservation units and small herd persistence

An academic paper giving results from the genetics of carious caribou herds near the Yukon/Alaska border, including the Fortymile herd. This is important for conservation purposes, as the papr notes, "Canada classified caribou Designatable Units (DUs) for conservation in 2011, but lacked the genetic data needed to assess herds in the central Yukon...".However, the study was unable to definitvely assign the Fortymile herd to the barrenground caribou 'designatable unit' finding that the herd shared genetics with some northern mountain caribou herds.
(2024)

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PorcupineBarren-groundFortymileRange managementManagement

A taste of space: Remote animal observations anddiscrete-choice models provide new insights into foragingand density dynamics for a large subarctic herbivore

An academic paper describing results from anaylzing footage from cameras on caribou collars. The paper focuses on the sorts of food that caribou of the Fortymile herd are eating. This information is important in selecting conservation areas, and in understanding how caribou diets (and numbers) might change in response to climat change.
(2024)

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Barren-groundFortymileRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

Continental synchrony and local responses: Climatic effects on spatiotemporal patterns of calving in a social ungulate

This paper looked at data from seven barren ground caribou herds, totalling more than 1200 animals over 15 years. The authors were trying to estimate the effects of changing climate on calving. The paper notes that, "...the ability to access preferred calving areas and the ability to synchronize births in time are critical for maintaining high barren-ground caribou abundances..." in concludes, "Overall, we detected considerable variability across years and across herds, but no significant trend for earlier calving by caribou, even as broad indicators of spring and snow phenology trend earlier." 
(2023)

Caribou as Forest Protectors

An online magazine story generally about caribou and indigenous conservation, it contains a section dealing with the Porcupine herd, quoting Joe Tetlichi, Chair of the Porcupine Caribou Management Board. He discusses climate change, development pressures on the herd's range, hunting management, and the importance of mobilizing Indigenous knowledge.
(2023)

BQCMB - Draft Nunavut Land Use Plan - 2023

A 11'29" video by the Beverly and Qamairjuaq Caribou Management Board. It aggregates testimony from Indigenous people speaking at hearings into the Nunavut Land Use Plan in Rankin Inlet and Thompson Manitoba. The testimony highlights the importance of protecting caribou habitat, especially calving grounds. The end of the video highlights written statements from organizations expressing the same sentiments.
(2023)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundHuman disturbance

Caribou: Take Action Today for the Future

A brief statement by the Northwest Territories Minister of Environment and Natural Resources announcing a new communications push to promote ethical caribou hunting practices. The plan was co-seveloped with Indigenous governments and representatives.
GNWT (2023)

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Barren-groundBathurstManaging huntingHunting

HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT-LED MONITORING OF SUMMER RANGE USE BY THE EASTERN MIGRATORY CAPE CHURCHILL CARIBOU POPULATION USING MINIMALLY INVASIVE TRAIL CAMERAS AND STANDARDIZED CRITERIA

This is a conference poster that describes the four-year project to document the Cape Churchill caribou herd. The project uses trail cameras to monitor the herd, and high school students are involved in the analysis.The project also includes fieldwork that measure such things as permafrost depth and vegetation cover in the herd's range.
(2023)

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Eastern MigratoryCape ChurchillRange managementClimate change

Mapping and Modelling Summer and Winter Range use of the Eastern Migratory Cape Churchill Caribou: Bridging Trail Cameras and Community-Based Approaches

a confer4nce poster describing a collaborative project (University of Saskatchewan, Manitoba Métis Federation, Wapusk National Park) to define the summering and wintering areas of the Cape Churchill caribou herd. The co-developed project methodology uses trail cameras to establish presence of the herd at different places over different seasons.
(2023)

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Eastern MigratoryCape ChurchillRange management

Why didn’t the caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) cross the winter road? The effect of industrial traffic on the road-crossing decisions of caribou

An academic article (not open access) that reports on a study that monitored the behaviour of collared caribou next to a winter road in the Northwest Territories used for mine access. The study found, "Caribou rarely crossed the road when any level of traffic was present; the level of traffic, not the road right-of-way, was the underlying explanatory factor for that behavioural decision." The authors suggest that adjusting traffic levels and frequencies might help mitigate the effect on caribou.
springer (2023)

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Barren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Large herbivore diversity slows sea ice–associated decline in arctic tundra diversity

An academic paper that looked at the effects of caribou and muskox on biodiversity in Arctic tundra. The loss of sea ice is affecting tundra biodiversity, but the experiment documented in this paper found that the loss of biodiversity was slower where caribou and muskox were present.
(2023)

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Barren-groundClimate change

The influence of postfire recovery and environmental conditions on boreal vegetation

This academic paper looks at previously burned forest in the Northwest Territories to see how vegetation recovers. The study found that summar forage might improve for woodland caribou (when they eat more grasses), but lichens (a major winter food for woodland caribou, and also barren ground caribou) will likely decrease with increased incidence of fires.
(2023)

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Range managementClimate change

Boreal and Peary caribou listed for another 10 years on the NWT List of Species at Risk

A news release from the Conference of Management Authorities (the group of wildlife co-management boards and governments that share management responsibility for the conservation and recovery of species at risk in the NWT) announcing that Peary and boreal caribou will be described as 'threatened" for another 10 year under the NWT Species at Risk Act. A recovery strategy for boreal caribou in the NWT was adopted in 2017, and the NWT partners agreed to adopt the federal recovery stratgy for Peary Caribou in 2022. An assessment of "threatened" in the NWT means the species are likely to become endangered if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to their extirpation or extinction.
(2023)

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PearyManagement

The Candid Caribou Project

A 3':21" video explaining research being done with trail cameras in Wapusk National Park. The trail cameras are helping to monitor the abundance and behaviours of the Cape Churchill caribou herd. The videos gives a breif overview of the project, and some messages about the importance of caribou at the end.
(2023)

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Barren-groundCape ChurchillRange management

Inuit Co-management Led Research

A web page (with further links) documenting variousinitiatives undertaken by the Torngat Wildlife and Plants Co-management Board that focus on caribou. The three herds covered are the George River herd, The Mealy Mountain herd, and the Torngat Mountain herd, all of which occur in Nunatsiavut territory (Labrador, Canada). The page provides a useful overview of the relationship of local Inuit with caribou, and provides insight into "co-management led research".
(2023)

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Eastern MigratoryGeorge RiverRange managementPeople

Evidence of migratory coupling between grey wolves and migratory caribou

An academic paper examining movement of wolves following caribou herds in Northern Quebec.
(2023)

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Barren-groundLeaf RiverManaging predatorsNatural factors

Climate-informed forecasts reveal dramatic local habitat shifts and population uncertainty for northern boreal caribou

This academic paper looks at climate-driven changes in wildfire and vegetation in parts of the Northwest Territories, and the impacts of those changes on woodland caribou. The authors modelled the likely effects of climate change on caribou populations in the region and found that, "...habitat suitability may increase in central and southwest regions of the NWT's Taiga Plains ecozone but decrease in southern and northwestern regions driven by conversion of coniferous to deciduous forests. We do not project that boreal caribou population growth rates will change despite forecasted changes to habitat suitability."
(2023)

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Range managementClimate change

WHERE WILL NORTHERN BOREAL CARIBOU LIVE AS THE CLIMATE CHANGES?

These posters all contain the same information in different languages (Tlicho, South Slavey, North Slavey, English) about climate driven changes in the future habitat for woodland caribou in the Northwest Territories. The information is based on an academic paper that can also be found in the resources section on this site (Climate-informed forecasts reveal dramatic local habitat shifts and population uncertainty for northern boreal caribou).
Frances Stewart (2023)

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Range managementClimate change

Gwich'in Elder: Mary Effie Snowshoe

A 7':06" video highlighting a Gwich'in (Northwest Territories) elder filmed at a caribou summit in Fort McPherson. She talks about the Gwich'in relationship with caribou.
(2023)

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Barren-groundPeople

Nunavut Impact Review Board Issues Reconsideration Report and Recommendations for Agnico Eagle Mines Limited’s “Meliadine Extension” Project Proposal, related to the Meliadine Gold Mine Project

A news release from the Nunavut Impact review board giving its reasons for turning down a request for a gold mine extension in Nunavut. The request from the Meliadine gold mine north of Rankin inlet would have added 11 years to the mine life, according to the mine owners. The review board highlighted potential effects of the mine expansion on the Qamairjuaq caribou herd and the people who rely on the herd; "...the Board noted high levels of uncertainty as to whether existing or modified mitigation measures would be sufficiently protective to prevent or manage negative effects from the Extension Proposal on caribou; especially when considering critical calving and post-calving periods. The Board also acknowledges that unpredicted negative impacts on caribou would have immediate negative effects on the ability of Inuit, Dene and Denesuline reliant on this herd to harvest caribou, which could have devastating and lasting effects on livelihood, health and culture."
Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB) (2023)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Shifting trails: the shrinking range of Bathurst Caribou

An excellent new web-based resource including maps and multimedia that gives a clear description of the challenges faced by the endangered Bathurst caribou herd, and the impacts of the herd's decline on the Tłı̨chǫ. The Tłı̨chǫ are a first nation whose territories to the north of Great Slave Lake overlap with the wintering range of the Bathurst herd. This site is a good case study of the challenges facing this herd and other barren ground caribou herds.
"Fate of the Caribou" project and partners (2023)

Effects of vehicle traffic on space use and road crossings of caribou in the Arctic

This academic paper examined the influence of traffic volume on how caribou in Alaska's Central Arctic Herd used their summer range and road crossings. The area studied is crossed by roads to service two oil fields on the North Slope. Previous sudies had suggested that 15 vehicles per hour was the level at which the caribou tended to avoid roads areas and road crossings, but the new study suggests that use of areas near roads picks up when traffic is less than 5 vehicles per hour. The study also fund that insect harassment seemed to be a factor too - when insect harassment was higher, caribou were less likely to be deterred by roads and traffic.
(2023)

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Barren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Honouring the ways of our ancestors, the Cree and Innu Nations sign a traditional understanding built from the customary values of sharing, sustainable harvest and respect for the caribou

This 3 page news release outlines the terms of an agreement between the Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) and the Innu Nation of Québec on sharing caribou resources in the region. The release notes, "In the last decade, the many Indigenous nations that depend on caribou for their food security and the preservation of their culture have been significantly impacted by the decline of caribou populations, especially those depending on the George River herd - last estimated in 2020 to have dropped to 8,100 animals." The agreement gives the nine Innu communities access to caribou in Cree territory, up to 300 animals in 2021-22.
(2022)

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George RiverLeaf RiverManaging huntingHunting

Assessing trends in caribou harvest

This two-page summary of research shows the impacts of caribou declines on several communities, mostly Gwich'in in northern NWT.  Overall, half of the people surveyed said that their household needs for caribou were not met. That figure was as high as 88% for Gwich'in in Inuvik. The main reason for needs being unmet was a lack of caribou availability (numbers too small, or too far away).
(2022)

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Barren-groundPeople

Large herbivores facilitate the persistence of rare taxa under tundra warming

An academic paper about an experiment in Greenland that found grazing by caribou and muskox may help protect local plant biodiversity in a warming climate. Without grazing, more common shrub species, like dwarf birch and willow become more dominant. 
Scientific Reports (2022)

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Range managementClimate change

Wapusk National Park

A federal government (Parks Canada) blog post about the work of one of its employees includes information about efforts to promote caribou conservation within Wapusk National Park (in northern Manitoba close to Churchill). The post talks about workshops that brought together "Indigenous communities, various levels of government, academic researchers and local communities as a structured way to share Indigenous Knowledge and western science perspectives related to caribou in Wapusk National Park and the Greater Wapusk Ecosystem". One outcome of the workshops was a collaborative project to place more than 90 trail cameras in the park to capture caribou movements.
Parks Canada (2022)

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Cape ChurchillRange managementPeople

The importance of ranges and habitat for the Porcupine Caribou Herd

A good simple and visually interesting web page/infographic that explains the importance of the different parts of the Porcupine caribou herd range. Ideal for younger audiences as a learning tool. Although specific to the Porcupine herd, it could also be used to explain the importance of range for other migratory caribou herds.
(2022)

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PorcupineBarren-groundRange managementNatural factors

Kǫ̀k’etı̀: Walking with Caribou

A beautifully shot 24':46" film that follows Indigenous Ekwǫ̀ Nàxoèhdee K’è caribou monitors in the Northwest Territories as they follow the Bathurst caribou herd to try to understnad the herd's decline. The film shows the Tłı̨chǫ people’s relationship with the caribou, and documents the passing on of knowledge about the land and the herd.
(2022)

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Barren-groundBathurstRange managementPeople

Improving Peary Caribou Presence Predictions in MaxEntUsing Spatialized Snow Simulations

A 12-page (minus references) academic journal article that looks at ways of using remote sensing to assess snow conditions, and couples that with likely distribution of Peary caribou. Previous studies have linked local caribou abundance to snow/ice conditions at critical times of year, as those conditions affect the ability of caribou to access food.
(2022)

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PearyClimate change

bibliography of sources for caribou and wind turbines

This is a bibliography of sources (both academic and grey literature) that discuss the impact of wind turbines on caribou/reindeer. The resources were compiled by Heather Hayne for WWF Canada.
(2022)

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Barren-groundRange managementThreatsClimate changeHuman disturbance

Caribou and wind turbines (Kivalliq region) - an overview of available information

A 22 slide presentation (exported as a pdf) providing an overview of effects of wind turbine development on Caribou. As the presentation points out, there is little information directly on the effects of wind turbines, so a lot of the information covers the effects of potential related disturbance. The presentation is related to plans to install wind turbines in the Nunavut communities of Baker Lake, Arviat and Rankin Inlet. The presentation was the result of a project by Heather Hayne for WWF Canada.
(2022)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

Caribou and Wind Turbines Annotated Bibliography

A 75-page annotated bibliography (this means the original sources are summarized) of sources for information about the effects of wind turbines on caribou. This was a project by Heather Hayne for WWF Canada.
(2022)

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Barren-groundRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

The Effect of Traffic Levels on the Distribution and Behaviour of Calving Caribou in an Arctic Oilfield

14 page (without reference list) academic journal article on the effects of traffic and infrastructure on the behaviour of calving caribou from the Central Arctic (barren ground) herd in Alaska. The paper concludes, "some behavioral disturbance and displacement of maternal caribou during calving still occur with convoying of traffic and low traffic frequency. Convoying may reduce the amount of displacement during periods between convoys, which could improve crossing success."
(2022)

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PorcupineBarren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Update on the global status of wild reindeer and caribou

This online article gives a relatively brief overview of the status of wild caribou and reindeer around the circumpolar world. There are some bright spots, but, "At the global scale, the historical trend continues with declining abundance and contracting distribution for most Rangifer populations." The global population of wild caribou and reindeer is estimated ar 2.43 million, down from 2.8 million in 2016.
(2022)

Closure of Baffin Island Caribou harvest

A brief news release from the government of Nunavut announcing the closure of hunting for caribou on Baffin Island as hunters have used the 250 tags in the total allowable harvest. The last population estimate for the Baffin herd in 2014 put the number at 4,652. 
(2022)

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Baffin IslandManaging huntingHunting

Caribou gut parasites indirectly create a greener tundra

An article about research into the ecological impact of gut parasites in caribou. The researchers "...developed a series of mathematical simulations to test how caribou survival, reproduction and feeding rate could be influenced by stomach worm (Ostertagia spp.) infections." They found that the effects of infection are similar to predation, with more plant growth being the end result of caribou sickened or killed by parasites. The authors suggest that changes in the abundance of parasites should be a factor considered in ecosystemic change.
(2022)

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Natural factors

Wolf culls change hunting habits and help caribou conservation

An article based on research into wolf habits in northeast Alberta after culling prompted by caribou conservation. The article found that remaining wolves in an area where wolves have been culled shift to a more nocturnal hunting pattern. The article suggests that "If wolves are not active at the same time as large ungulates, predation rates decrease. This will likely contribute to recovering caribou population growth." 
(2022)

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Managing predatorsNatural factors

Guiding principles for Cross-Cultural Collaboration

A set of principles developed by the Indigenous Knowledge Circle of the National Boreal Caribou Knowledge Consortium on how to work together with Indigenous communities. The ten principles include 'Recognition of relationships with caribou', 'Collaboration and shared decision-making', and 'Respect for and openness to Indigenous Knowledge, culture and perspectives'. The link is to an English language version, the document is also available in Woods Cree, Inuttitut, Michif, and French.
(2022)

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ManagementPeople

Estimating lichen biomass in forests and peatlands of northwestern Canada in a changing climate

This academic paper focuses on predicting the mass of lichen (an important food for caribou) under changing climate conditions. The papr finds that over ten years, the amount of lichen in areas sampled in the NWT's Mackenzie Valley has decreased, perhaps due to an increase in other kinds of plants as the region warms.
(2022)

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Climate change

Collaborative Research and Monitoring of Migratory Eastern Cape Churchill Caribou: Linking Wapusk National Park and an Indigenous Conservation Protected Area

A recorded presentation by several people (41:40 to end of presentation, 57:43 to end of questions) about the Cape Churchill herd and plans for its further conservation. The presentation description says, "The summer range of the Cape Churchill herd is almost completely protected by Wapusk National Park, however the winter range is largely unprotected, existing outside of the park boundaries. The development of a proposed Indigenous Protected Conservation Area (IPCA), led by the Manitoba Métis Federation is a priority goal of our group, with caribou being its focal species." The part of the presentation focused on caribou conservation starts at about 07:00.
(2022)

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Eastern MigratoryCape ChurchillRange management

Behaviour is more important than thermal performance for an Arctic host–parasite system under climate change

An academic paper reporting on combined experimentation and modeling to try to assess the effects of climate change on a common caribou/reindeer gut parasite. The paper found that not just changing temperatures, but the ways in which parasites may change their behaviours, and ways in which caribou may also change theoir behaviours are likely to be more important factors.
(2022)

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Barren-groundBathurstClimate changeNatural factors

Bathurst caribou health guide

Visual assessment of caribou health is very difficult. To better understand the current health status of Bathurst caribou, Kaitlyn Dornstauder, a University of Calgary Veterinary student working in the lab of Susan Kutz, teamed up with Ekwò Naxoehdeè K’è (A Tlicho government project to monitor caribou, translated as "boots on the ground") to develop a caribou health field guide to help improve observations of caribou condition on the barren lands. This is a poster describing the project.
Kaitlyn Dornstauder (2022)

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Barren-groundBathurst

Evaluating the impact of caribou habitat restoration on predator and prey movement

An academic paper that looks at the impact on caribou numbers of trying to return seismic lines back to a more natural state. The research found that restoration on seismic lines in northern Alberta slowed wolved and caribou. The assumption is that if both wolves and caribou move more slowly along these sites, it will reduce the likelihood that they run across each other, and so reduce the numbers of caribou killed. The paper suggests further research to test that assumption.
(2022)

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Range managementHuman disturbance

Public Advisory: George River Caribou Population Remains at a Vulnerable Low

A brief news release from the government of Newfoundland and Labrador on the results of a count of the George River caribou herd. The count, conducted jointly with the Government of Quebec and the Nunatsiavut Government, found that the herd had declined again after a slight rise in numbers two years ago. It now stands at an estimated 7,200, a 98% drop from its numbers on 2001.
(2022)

Government of Canada invests $3.8 million to support barrenground caribou conservation in the Northwest Territories

A news release from the Canadian government department of Environment and Climate Change announcing an investment in three caribou projects of $3.8 million, to be matched equally by the government of the Northwest Territories. the releqase says the projects, "will monitor barren-ground caribou, their habitats, and threats that may be affecting herds in the Northwest Territories by using Indigenous and Western science and knowledge. Projects also aim to conserve and protect barren-ground caribou populations and their habitats by working to minimize human and predator impacts, and identifying important barren-ground caribou habitats such as calving grounds and migratory routes for conservation." The release doesn't mention the exact nature of the projects, or the period over which the money will be paid out.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (2022)

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Barren-groundRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbanceNatural factors

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lists Dolphin and Union Caribou as Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act

A news release from the US Fish and Wildlife Service noting that the Dolphin and Union caribou herd in Canada has been listed by the USFWS as endangered. While this has no implications for the management of the herd in Canada, it means, "When this final rule is effective on Jan. 12, 2023, all personal and commercial imports and exports, except for those accompanied by permits issued for research and education purposes, are prohibited." The release also notes that listings of species outside of the US can result in a higher profile for conservation efforts. 
(2022)

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Dolphin and UnionClimate change

Svalbard reindeer winter diets: Long-term dietary shifts to graminoids in response to a changing climate

Reindeer on the far northern Norwegian island of Svalbard were thought thrreatened by climate change. However, the animals seem to be thriving at the moment, and the answer is apparently a shift in diet.
(2022)

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Climate change

Reasons for Decisions Related to a Joint Proposal for Dìga (Wolf) Management in Wek’èezhìı

A 109-page document on the reasons for decision of the Wek’èezhìı Renewable Resources Board regarding wolf management in the region. The co-management board makes recommendations to the Tlicho and Northwest Territories governments, covering an area north and west of Yellowknife. The report supports continuing to kill wolves as a way of helping the recovery of the Bathurst and Bluenose East caribou herds. 
Wek’èezhìı Renewable Resources Board (2021)

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BathurstBluenose EastManaging predatorsNatural factors

Trophic consequences of terrestrial eutrophication for a threatened ungulate

This academic paper looks at the relationship between increased productivity in forests, woodland caribou, wolves, and other prey species such as moose and deer. The greater productivity of forest floor plants caused by cutting down older trees encourages more moose and deer, which in turn bring more wolves that prey on caribou.
proceedings of the royal society B biological sciences (2021)

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Human disturbance

Historical Landscape Use of Migratory Caribou: New Insights From Old Antlers

This academic paper uses shed antlers from the Central Arctic Caribou herd in Alaska to trace the herd's historical movements. The analysis shows the herd shifting its range at the same time as oil development was starting to occur in the herd's range.
(2021)

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Barren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Estimation of trends in zone of influence of mine sites on barren-ground caribou populations in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using new methods

An academic study looking at how much diamond mines in the Northwest Territories influence habitat used by barren-ground caribou. The study showed these effects varied from year to year. the paper says, "The exact mechanisms that cause caribou to avoid mines, roads and oilfields has not been clearly identified. "
(2021)

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Barren-groundBathurstRange managementHuman disturbance

rangifer anatomy project

This website has some unusual resources, including detailed deconstructions of caribou anatomy, and posters with some Indigenous terminology for caribou parts.
(2021)

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Northern caribou factsPeople

NWT SPECIES AT RISK COMMITTEE (SARC) SPECIES ASSESSMENT PROCESS

A document explaining the new Species at Risk assessment process adopted by the Northwest Territories Species at Risk Committee. The committee has adopted new rules that explain how inputs from Indigenous Knowledge will be used in assessment criteria. 
NWT species at risk committee (2021)

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ManagementPeople

A decision support tool for assessing cumulative effects on an Arctic migratory tundra caribou population

This academic paper uses a "caribou cumulative effects model" to examine what would happen to the Porcupine Caribou herd if oil and gas development took place in the herd's calving grounds. It concludes that the likelihood of a decline in the herd would move from 3% to 19% over the next tend years, depending on the development secenario.
ecology and Society (2021)

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PorcupineBarren-groundRange managementHuman disturbance

Predicting patterns of terrestrial lichen biomass recovery following boreal wildfires

This academic paper looks at lichens, an important food for caribou. It examines the current distribution of lichens, and also the recovery time for lichens after forest fires. This varies according to climate and the dominant trees in the area.
Ecosphere (2021)

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Barren-groundRange managementClimate change

Fortymile Caribou Herd: Video footage from caribou collars

A 1:45 video compilation of video taken from collared caribou in the fortymile herd showing a variety of behaviors including foraging, birthing, and nursing.
Alaska NPS (2021)

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Format: video

Barren-groundFortymile

caribou contaminant report 2020-21

This is a report that covers all of the results from a project to monitor contaminants in caribou. Some tests could not be done due to lack of lab capacity udirng the pandemic. The report concludes that: "Levels of most contaminants measured in caribou tissues are not of concern, although kidney mercury and cadmium concentrations may cause some concern for human health depending on the quantity of organs consumed. Caribou meat (muscle) does not accumulate high levels of contaminants and is a healthy food choice. Concentrations of PFASs and PBDEs are low with respect to potential toxicity to caribou or those consuming caribou. Adults consuming Sanikiluaq reindeer are recommended to consume a maximum of seven whole livers each year due to PFOS levels in those livers."    
(2021)

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PorcupineBeverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundBaffin IslandContaminants

NWT CONFERENCE OF MANAGEMENT AUTHORITIES CONSENSUS AGREEMENT ON LISTING NORTHERN MOUNTAIN CARIBOU

This 11 page document is the agreement by the NWT management authorities responsible for the northern population of mountain caribou (woodland caribou in northern mountain habitat) to add the caribou as "a species of Special Concern" under the NWT Species at Risk Act. The report says that Indigenous knowledge indicates that the population is in decline and that "...northern mountain caribou have the potential to become Threatened if the effects of climate change continue within their habitat and localized threats are not managed effectively."
(2021)

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Managing huntingRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbanceHunting

“These Trees Have Stories to Tell”:Linking Dënesǫ́łıné Oral History of Caribou Use with Trample Scar Frequencyon Black Spruce Roots at Ɂedacho Kué

This academic article combines Indigenous and scientific knowledge to elaborate on the histroy of caribou movements near the Dënesǫ́łıné community of Lutsel K'e (Northwest Territories). It is useful to not only consider the abundance history of the Bathurst and Beverly caribou herds, but also the ways in which the research was locally-directed, and the ways in which the different types of knowledge were used. The paper repeats the contention of local people that disruption caused by mining in the region is largely to blame for the current herd declines.
(2021)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundBathurstHuman disturbance

Video of polar bear hunting an adult caribou

This 2:09 video shows a polar bear swimming up behind an adult male caribou, seizing it, and then dragging it up onto shore.
field and stream (2021)

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Format: video

Natural factors

MUSKOX AND CARIBOU HEALTH MONITORING PROGRAM - activity update June 2021

This 12-page document gives brief summaries about work on muskox and caribou in the central Arctic region of Canada (communities of Ulukhaktok, Kugluktuk and Cambridge Bay). The research centres on the health of the two species, and includes projects to gather Indigenous knowledge on the Dolphin and Union herd, and disease prevalence in the Bluenose East herd. The research is not yet complete so few conclusions are drawn.
(2021)

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Barren-groundBluenose EastDolphin and UnionNatural factors

Critical summer foraging tradeoffs in a subarctic ungulate

This 38-page academic paper looks at the summer diet of the Fortymile caribou herd that ranges between Yukon and Alaska. It uses video from collars on the nimals to analyze what they're eating, and other behaviours such as avoiding insects. The video confirmed a sharp decline in eating when insects such as mosquitoes were more present, and also confirmed that lichen is an important component of the herd's diet, even in summer.
ecology and evolution (Wiley) (2021)

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Barren-groundFortymileRange managementClimate change

Caribou and reindeer migrations in the changing Arctic

This academic paper looks at factors that affect caribou migration, including climate change and development. it concludes, "...we recommend that large areas of undeveloped critical habitat, like calving grounds, be protected to conserve Rangifer. Where barriers exist, or will exist, migrations will be altered or lost."
Animal Migration (2021)

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Barren-groundRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbanceNatural factors

Łutsël K’é Dene First Nation’s Caribou Stewardship Plan

A 47-page 2020 Caribou stewardship plan from the Łutsël K’é Dene First Nation (NWT). The “Yúnethé Xá Ɂetthën Hádı” plan covers the Bathurst, Beverly, Ahiak, and Qamanirjuaq herds.
Łutsël K’é Dene First Nation (2020)

study on advancing migration, calving dates for Qamanirjuaq caribou

This academic study says Qamanirjuaq caribou are migrating and calving earlier, matching earlier greening uo of calving grounds. The authors think this may show caribou are more resilient to climate change.
(2020)

advisory committee for cooperation on wildlife management

This is the site for the Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management. It was established to exchange information, help develop cooperation and consensus, and make recommendations regarding wildlife and wildlife habitat issues that cross land claim and treaty boundaries in the Northwest Territories. The committee includes the Wildlife Management Advisory Council (NWT), Gwich’in Renewable Resources Board, Ɂehdzo Got’ı̨nę Gots’ę́ Nákedı (Sahtú Renewable Resources Board), Wek’èezhìi Renewable Resources Board, Kitikmeot Regional Wildlife Board, and Tuktut Nogait National Park Management Board. The ACCWM covers three caribou herds, the Bluenose east and west herds, and Cape Bathurst.
(2020)

"You can never replace the caribou": Inuit Experiences of Ecological Grief from Caribou Declines

A 59-page academic paper on the effects of caribou declines on Inuit in Nunatsiavut and NunatuKavut (Labrador). The paper discusses their grief and cultural loss.
American Imago, Volume 77, Number 1, Spring 2020, pp. 31-59 (2020)

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George RiverLeaf RiverResourcesPeople

State-dependent foraging by caribou with different nutritional requirements

A 14-page academic paper that examines the connection between the physiological state of caribou and how they feed. The paper says, "Foraging time by caribou was partially state-dependent, highlighting the importance of accounting for physiological state in studies of animal behavior. Fine-scale foraging behaviors may influence larger-scale behavioral strategies, with potential implications for conservation and management."
Journal of Mammalogy (2020)

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Range managementResources

caribou and sea ice crossings near Gjoa Haven

This is part of a project website (www.straightupnorth.ca) for community-based research in Inuit Nunangat (areas where Inuit live in Canada). The caribou project looked at caribou's use of ice crossings near Gjoa Haven, Nunavut, and how changing sea ice conditions and ship traffic could affect those crossings.
(2020)

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Range managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

Extirpation despite regulation? Environmental assessment and caribou

This is an academic paper, but written in accessible language about the shortcomings of environmental assessment as a tool for caribou conservation. It concentrates mostly on woodland caribou, but the discussion is broadly applicable to any developments in caribou habitat.
Conservation Science and Practice (2020)

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Range managementResourcesHuman disturbance

RECOVERY STRATEGY FOR BARREN-GROUND CARIBOU In the Northwest Territories

This 70-page recovery strategy for barren-gound caribou in the Northwest Territories lays out plans to help the eight herds covered by the strategy. The strategy was required by the NWT Species at Risk Act after the barren-ground caribou were listed as "threatened" in 2018. The governments and co-management boards that developed the strategy have until April 9, 2021 to agree on the implementation of the recovery strategy. 
Conference of Management Authorities (2020)

Interview on Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management

Ever wonder how different jurisdictions cooperate on caribou management? Here's one example. An interview with Jody Pellissey, Executive Director of the Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board about the Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management (ACCWM). It was created to share information and coordinate wildlife management between wildlife management boards in the NWT and Nunavut, with a particular focus on the management of transboundary caribou herds.
(2020)

Boreal Caribou Can Coexist with Natural but Not Industrial Disturbances

An academic paper looking at the cumulative impacts of industrial development on woodland caribou in Alberta. The paper concludes that caribou populations are being driven down by the cumulative effects of industrial development, mostly related to oil and gas
the journal of wildlife management (2020)

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Range managementHuman disturbance

Interchange and Overlap Among Four Adjacent Arctic Caribou Herds

This academic paper looks at four barren-ground caribou herds in Alaska (including the Porcupine herd that ranges into northern Canada) to try to understand how often individuals change herds. Of the four herds studied, the Porcupine herd had the lowest incidence of caribou joining another herd. The authors concluded, "There was greater herd interchange from the 2 smaller herds to the 2 larger herds, indicating a tendency of caribou to join larger groups or move to areas of higher caribou density."
(2020)

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PorcupineBarren-groundRange management

Large‐scale prion protein genotyping in Canadian caribou populations and potential impact on chronic wasting disease susceptibility

This academic paper is about chronic wasting disease, a brain disease that affects members of the deer family. It has not been found in Canadian caribou yet, but has been found in deer. The genetic makeup of different caribou subspecies is thought to influence their vulnerability to chronic wasting disease. This paper suggests that barren-ground caribou may be less vulnerable than the woodland and mountain caribou.
(2020)

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Barren-groundRange managementNatural factors

“We’re Made Criminals Just to Eat off the Land”: Colonial Wildlife Management and Repercussions on Inuit Well-Being

This academic article looks at management of the Mealy Mountain Herd of woodland caribou in Nunatsiavut (Labrador), and the impacts of the management on Inuit in the nearby community of Rigolet. While the herd is not not covered by this site, the article raises issues of the exclusion of local people from meaningful input into management of the herd that have echoes across the northern caribou range. It concludes, "...the multi-generational and enduring negative effects of exclusionary and discriminatory Western management policies, enacted with little to no Indigenous involvement or consideration, is clear in this research, and illustrates not only the limitations of many western approaches to wildlife management, but the need for rectification and redress."
(2020)

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George RiverManaging huntingPeople

Report to the Hunters of the Lorillard Caribou May 2020

A brief report from the Northern Contaminants Program on contaminants in the Lorillard herd. The animals were sampled in 2018. The report concludes, "Although it is difficult to come to any firm conclusions based on only four animals, we can say that contaminant levels in the Lorillard Caribou are similar to those in other Arctic herds. There have been no health advisories issued on any Nunavut caribou."
(2020)

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Barren-groundLorillardPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Lorillard Caribou May 2020 - Inuktitut

A brief report in Inuktitut from the Northern Contaminants Program on contaminants in the Lorillard herd. The animals were sampled in 2018. The report concludes, "Although it is difficult to come to any firm conclusions based on only four animals, we can say that contaminant levels in the Lorillard Caribou are similar to those in other Arctic herds. There have been no health advisories issued on any Nunavut caribou."
(2020)

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Barren-groundLorillardPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Sanikiluaq Reindeer

A brief report from the Northern Contaminants Program to the people who hunt reindeer in Sanikiluaq. The reports says most contaminants in local reindeer are similar to those found in other caribou herds in the Canadian Arctic, although levels of some contaminants in Sanikiluaq reindeer were slightly higher than average.
(2020)

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PeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Sanikiluaq Reindeer - Inuktitut

A brief report in Inuktitut from the Northern Contaminants Program to the people who hunt reindeer in Sanikiluaq. The reports says most contaminants in local reindeer are similar to those found in other caribou herds in the Canadian Arctic, although levels of some contaminants in Sanikiluaq reindeer were slightly higher than average.
(2020)

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PeopleContaminants

Contaminants in Arctic Caribou Synopsis Report 2019-20

A 9 page synopsis report of the Arctic Caribou Contaminant Monitoring Program. The program covers several Arctic herds. It concludes, "Levels of most contaminants measured in caribou kidneys were not of concern toxicologically, although renal [kidney] mercury and cadmium concentrations may cause some concern for human health depending on the quantity of organs consumed. Yukon Health has advised restricting intake of kidney and liver from Yukon caribou, the recommended maximum varying depending on herd (e.g. a maximum of 25 Porcupine cariboukidneys/year). The health advisory confirms that heavy metals are very low in the meat (muscle) from caribouand this remains a healthy food choice. There have been no health advisories issued for caribou in NWT or Nunavut."
Northern contaminants program (2020)

Renal trace elements in barren-ground caribou subpopulations: Temporal trends and differing effects of sex, age and season

An academic paper that looks at the level of some metals in kidneys of some northern caribou. It found that copper levels are decreasing in the caribou kidneys, possibly due to changes in what caribou are eating. The paper concludes, "Declining Cu concentrations in caribou are of concern as low levels could potentially negatively affect reproduction and therefore caribou at a population level."
Science of the Total Environment (2020)

Report to the Hunters of the Qamanirjuaq Caribou May 2020

A brief Northern Contaminants Program report on the Qamanirjuaq caribou herd. The report has not found any significant change in levels of the contaminants monitored in the samples from 2018.
Northern contaminants program (2020)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Qamanirjuaq Caribou May 2020 - Inuktitut

A brief Northern Contaminants Program report in Inuktitut on the Qamanirjuaq caribou herd. The report has not found any significant change in levels of the contaminants monitored in the samples from 2018.
Northern contaminants program (2020)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeopleContaminants

Biotic interactions govern the distribution of coexisting ungulates in the Arctic Archipelago – A case for conservation planning

An academic paper looking at what might best predict habitat for Peary caribou and muskox in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. the paper models what it considers likely key habitat for both species in late winter, and notes that most of this habitat is outside of protected areas.
(2020)

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PearyRange managementClimate change

Aerial Survey of the George River Caribou Herd - July 2020

A 15':30" movie of a powerpoint presentation on the 2020 survey of the George River Caribou herd. The survey estimates the herd is up to 8,100 from 5,500 in 2018. Most of the increase is thought to be due to a higher calving rate. The "results' section starts about 7':47" in. This is the first time time in 20 years that herd numbers have trended upwards.
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (2020)

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George River

Merging indigenous and scientific knowledge links climate with the growth of a large migratory caribou population

This academic paper collected both scientific and traditional knowledge inputs about the state of the Porcupine caribou herd over ten years. The study "...indicates that a large migratory caribou population can grow and improve condition in a global context of caribou decline and climate warming, thereby warning against generalizations about the influence of climate on all caribou populations."
(2020)

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PorcupineClimate change

Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic

This academic article summarizes trends in long-term data on a variety of Arctic species movements, including barren-ground Caribou. It found, "Barren-ground caribou calved later despite occupying a similar latitudinal range as the northern boreal caribou (Fig. 3). Most importantly, barren-ground and northern woodland caribou, but not southern woodland caribou, exhibited significant trends toward earlier parturition [0.4 to 1.1 days/year (table S10)]. This is the first continental-scale retrospective evidence of potential adaptive responses to climate trends by caribou."
science magazine (2020)

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Barren-groundClimate change

Population Estimate of the Dolphin and Union Caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus x pearyi) Coastal Survey, October 2018 and Demographic Indicators

This 49 page (in English) report contains executive summaries in Inuktitut (both syllabics and western orthography). It shows that the Dophin and Union herd has declined to an estimated 4,105 in 2018, down from 17,000 in 2015. The Dophin and Union herd is unique, being neither barren-ground nor Peary caribou. It migrates between Victoria Island and the mainland. 
Government of Nunavut (2020)

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Dolphin and UnionClimate changeHunting

Fall supplemental feeding increases population growth rate of an endangered caribou herd

A 25-page academic paper that describes an experimental approach to increasing the size of a woodland caribou herd in British Columbia. Over several years, researchers fed caribou in the fall to help females survive winter and produce healthy calves. The study found, "The Consumption of supplemental food probably improved their nutritional status which ultimately led to population growth."
(2020)

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Managing predatorsRange management

Ice breakers in the Arctic: Let’s talk Inuit safety

A commentary co-written by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Ekaluktutiak Hunters and Trappers Organization about an initiative to avoid or minimize the impact of icebreakers in Arctic Canada. The Proactive Vessel Management initiative in Cambridge Bay (Ikaluktutiak) used information from local people to create something called a "Notice to Mariners" that gives people in icebreaking boats advice of how best to avoid times or places when local people or caribou are crossing the sea ice, or to minimize any threat posed by icebreaking.
wildlife conservation society/Ekaluktutiak HTO (2020)

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PearyDolphin and UnionRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

Porcupine caribou resources and tools

This is a web page on which you can search for categorized information on the Porcupine caribou herd.
Porcupine Caribou Management Board (2019)

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PorcupineBarren-ground

How we count caribou: calving ground photo survey

This video explains the Calving Ground Photo Survey method used to count Bathurst and Bluenose-East caribou.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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BathurstBluenose East

Aerial Survey of Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and Peary Caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on Northwest Victoria Island, April-May 2015

A 2019 report on a 2016 sruvey of Peary Caribou and muskoxen on northwest Victoria Island. Thousands of muskoxen were seen, but only two caribou.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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PearyNatural factors

Barren-ground Caribou Co-Management in the NWT

A 21-page booklet explaining the different responsibilities and authroities for managing all of the barren-ground caribou herds in the NWT. It includes information on responsibilities for herds that cross borders.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

Estimates of breeding females & adult herd size

This report on a 2018 survey of the Bluenose-east herd showed the herd has shrubk by 50% since the last survey in 2015.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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Bluenose East

Recovery strategy for Barren-Ground caribou

This 62-page 2019 draft recovery strategy for barren-ground caribou in the NWT was produced by the group of wildlife boards and governments responsible for the conservation and recovery of species at risk in the NWT.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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Barren-groundManaging huntingManaging predatorsRange management

About BQCMB

This seven-minute video explains the work of the Beverley and Qamanirjuaq caribou management board. Suitable for older grades, perhaps from grades 6-12.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2019)

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Beverly and Qaminirjuaq

Bathhurst Caribou: Range Plan

This lengthy range plan for the Bathurst Herd includes a summary in French.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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Bathurst

Bathurst range plan (draft) - What we heard

A 21-page 2019 report on the results of the public engagement by the Government of the Northwest Terriotries on the Bathurst caribou herd range plan. The document summarizes the views that were heard but does not quote them.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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Bathurst

Bathurst mobile conservation zone

A web page that explains and updates the mobile conservation zone
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

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Bathurst

Gwich’in Knowledge of Porcupine caribou

A thorough and very informative 2019 book of Gwich’in traditional knowledge of the Porcupine caribou. It includes information on hunting practices, on the uses of the caribou, caribou tanning, caribou clothing, how the caribou influenced seasonal movements, and caribou management
Gwich’in Tribal Council (2019)

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PorcupinePeople

Boots On The Ground: Wolves and Caribou

A four minute video with English subtitles showing wolves attacking a caribou herd in the Northwest Territories
Tłı̨chǫ Government (2019)

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Fire and lichen dynamics in the Taiga Shield of the Northwest Territories and implications for barren‐ground caribou winter forage

A 2019 academic paper on the effects of fires on the quality of forage in the winter range of the Bathurst herd in the NWT
University of North British Columbia (UNBC) (2019)

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Bathurst

Synopsis Report 2018/19 Arctic Caribou Contaminant Monitoring Program

This project studies contaminant levels in caribou in the Canadian Arctic to determine if these populations remain healthy (in terms of contaminant loads), whether these important resources remain safe and healthy food choices for northerners and if contaminant levels are changing over time.
(2019)

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PorcupineBeverly and QaminirjuaqPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Ahiak Caribou – Feb 2019

The Northern Contaminants Program monitors contaminants in Arctic Caribou in Canada.
(2019)

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AhiakPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Bluenose West Caribou – Feb 2019

The Northern Contaminants Program monitors contaminants in Arctic Caribou in Canada.
(2019)

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Bluenose WestPeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Porcupine Caribou – February 2019

With the help of local hunters, we have been taking samples of the Porcupine caribou since 1991. We collect these samples to study changes in the level of contaminants kidneys and livers of caribou.
(2019)

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PorcupinePeopleContaminants

Report to the Hunters of the Qamanirjuaq Caribou – Feb 2019

With the help of local hunters, we have been taking kidney, liver and muscle samples of Qamanirjuaq caribou since 2006. We collect these samples to study changes in the levels of contaminants in kidneys and livers of caribou. These contaminants may be carried to the Arctic by wind.
(2019)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundPeopleContaminants

Where to spend the winter? The role of intraspecific competition and climate in determining the selection of wintering areas by migratory caribou

A 2019 academic paper on the effects of competition between different caribou herds in choosing winter ranges. The paper focuses on the George River and Leaf River herds.
(2019)

Tactical departures and strategic arrivals: Divergent effects of climate and weather on caribou spring migrations

A 2019 academic paper that looks at factors affecting caribou migration timing and speed. The paper concludes that  later arrival at calving grounds might indicate that females are in worse condition, and that calving and calf survival rates might be lower.
(2019)

Caribou Use of Habitat Near Energy Development in Arctic Alaska

A 2019 academic paper that looked at the responses of a herd in Alaska to oil and gas development. It says there is growing evidence that caribou do not get used to such developments, and continue to avoid them, reducing the range available to the caribou and disturbing their movements.
(2019)

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PorcupineHuman disturbance

Vulnerability analysis of the Porcupine Caribou Herd to potential development of the 1002 lands in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

A 2019 “vulnerability analysis” on the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) assessing its vulnerability to oil and gas development in the herd’s calving grounds in Alaska. The analysis found that “...the percent probability of the PCH dropping into Orange and Red Zones (where legislated harvest restrictions are imposed) is increased by 10% -18% (Alt D2-Alt B) compared to baseline conditions.”
Yukon Department of Environment (2019)

Public opinion about caribou protection in Canada’s North

A 2019 poll on protection of caribou. The poll of people in northern regions was commissioned by WWF Canada. It found almost 90% wanted protection for caribou calving grounds.
WWF (2019)


Format: pdf

Range management

BATHURST CARIBOU RANGE PLAN SUMMARY

This 8-page document from 2019 is a simple summary of the Bathurst caribou range plan.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2019)

WRRB Reasons for Decision Final Report – Kǫ̀ k’èetı̀ ekwǫ̀ (Bathurst Caribou) Herd

A 2019 report from the Wek’èezhìı Renewable Resources Board detailing its response to management plans for the Bathurst herd put forward by the Tlicho Government and the Government of the Northwest Territories.
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2019)

Inuktitut summary report on contaminants in the Dolphin and Union caribou herd

A two-page summary report in Inuktitut on contaminants in the Dolphin and Union caribou herd
(2019)

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Dolphin and UnionContaminants

Inuktitut summary report on contaminants in the Ahiak herd

A two-page summary report in Inuktitut on contaminants in the Ahiak caribou herd
(2019)

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AhiakContaminants

2019 report to the hunters of the Qamanirjuaq herd - Inuktitut

2 page summary report to hunters of the Qamanirjuaq herd in Inuktitut reporting on research into contaminants in the herd.
(2019)

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Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeopleContaminants

2019 report to the hunters of the Dolphin and Union herd

Two-page summary report to hunters of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd on research into contaminants in the herd
(2019)

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Dolphin and UnionContaminants

KEEYASK GENERATION PROJECT TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS MONITORING PLAN REPORT - CARIBOU WINTER ABUNDANCE ESTIMATE 2019

this 48 page report is part of a multi-year monitoring plan designed to assess the effects on caribou of construction and operation of the Keeyask hydro project. The project is on the Nelson River in Northeast Manitoba. The project area is used by the qamanirjuaq herd, as well as two herds of Eastern migratory caribou in the Hudson Bay region. The report concludes that it is difficult to tell what influence the project has had on caribou crossing affected water bodies, but that it appears construction access roads had minimal impacts on their movements.
(2019)

FACT SHEET: Bluenose-East Caribou

2-page fact sheet on the Bluenose-east herd.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Bluenose East

Management Plan for the Dolphin and Union Caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus x pearyi) in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut

This long management plan for Dolphin and Union Caribou is a joint effort between the NWT and Nunavut governments in cooperation with the Canadian government and several other organizations from both Nunavut and the Inuvialuit settlement area. It details threats and proposed management actions.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Dolphin and Union

Barren-ground Caribou Surveys - English

A 1':25" 2018 video with subtitles from the Government of the Northwest Territories showing and explaining the aerial surveys of barren-ground caribou in 2018.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

BathurstBluenose East

Boots on the Ground Caribou Monitoring Program

a 2':49" 2018 video that talks about the "boots on the ground" program to monitor Bathurst caribou, a partnership between the Tli'cho government and the Government of the Northwest Territories.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

Bathurst

Barren-ground Caribou Survey Results FAQ

A 6-page document on the barren-ground caribou surveys conducted by the Government of the Northwest Territories in 2018.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Barren-groundHunting

Statutory Report on Wildlife to the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut

A 2018 report to the Nunavut Legislative on the state of wildlife in the territory. It includes a table (pp. 77-78) that lists “estimated demand for caribou, by herd, and the estimated level of capacity of that species to meet the demand.” The table shows that in many cases, demand exceeds capacity.
Government of Nunavut (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Managing hunting

Innu Nation threatening future of George River caribou

A news release from the Nunatsiavut Government talking about the strained relations with the neighboring Innu over hunting of the George River herd.
Nunatsiavut Government (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

George RiverHunting

Fall Population Estimate of the Dolphin and Union Caribou herd (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus x pearyi) Victoria Island, October 2015 And Demographic Population Indicators 2015-2017

2018 Nunavut government assessment of the state of the Dolphin and Union caribou herd
(2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Dolphin and Union

Caribou (Eastern Migratory population)

A brief Ontario government web page on eastern migratory caribou. The range of one of the herds (the Southern Hudson Bay subpopulation) extends into Ontario.
Government of Ontario (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Eastern Migratory

Maps of the Leaf River Herd Migration

This site has monthly maps of the migration of the Leaf River herd for 2017-2018.
Government of Quebec (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Leaf River

Muskox and Caribou

A 2018 2-page fact sheet on competition between muskoxen and caribou, focused mostly on the Porcupine herd range. It concludes that, “...the two species are not likely to compete with each other for resources or range.”
Wildlife Management Advisory Council, North Slope (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Human disturbance effects and cumulative habitat loss in endangered migratory caribou

A 2018 academic paper to assess the effects of human disturbance on barren-ground caribou herds. This study focuses on the Leaf River and George River herds in northern Quebec and Labrador. The paper finds caribou do avoid human disturbance but makes no findings on the impacts to the health of the two herds
Université Laval (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Barren-groundGeorge RiverLeaf River

Undermining subsistence: Barren-ground caribou in a “tragedy of open access”

This 2018 academic paper argues that human disturbance, not subsistence hunting is the prime driver of caribou decline. It focuses primarily on the Bathurst Caribou Herd, shared between the NWT and Nunavut
Various (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Barren-groundBathurst

Reindeer and Caribou: Health and Disease

This 2018 academic book is devoted entirely to health and disease in caribou and reindeer and includes information on the likely effects of climate change on diseases
Various (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Mercury in Seaweed, Lichens and Mushrooms from the Home Range of the Qamanirjuaq Caribou

Qamanirjuaq caribou have higher mercury concentrations than many other Arctic caribou herds. Usually, caribou get most of their mercury from lichens, but local elders described the Qamanirjuaq caribou eating seaweed from the seashore. Since seaweed is known to accumulate some metals, it was hypothesized that the caribou may be getting additional mercury from this source.
(2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Beverly and QaminirjuaqContaminants

Plain Language Summary: Mercury in Seaweed, Lichens and Mushrooms from the Home Range of the Qamanirjuaq Caribou

The Qamanirjuaq caribou have higher mercury concentrations than some other caribou in the Arctic. Usually, caribou get most of the mercury they eat from lichens, but at community meetings in Kivalliq, elders described caribou eating seaweed. Since seaweed absorbs some metals, the caribou may be getting additional mercury from seaweed.
(2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Contaminants

Population structure of caribou in an ice-bound archipelago

This 2018 academic paper suggests that, based on genetics, the Baffin Island population of caribou should be treated as a separate “designatable unit” under the classification system for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). This would have implications for management of caribou on the island.
(2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Baffin IslandRange management

Wolves Hunt Caribou In Quebec’s Northern Forest

An almost 5 minute video clip showing wolves hunting caribou, focuses on the wolves’ hunting techniques. 
CBC (2018)


Format: video

Natural factors

Local knowledge to enhance wildlife population health surveillance: Conserving muskoxen and caribou in the Canadian Arctic

This 2018 academic paper argues for the value of using local knowledge in monitoring caribou populations.
(2018)


Format: web

Baffin Island

Inuit Approaches to Naming and Distinguishing Caribou: Considering Language, Place, and Homeland toward Improved Co-management

A 2018 academic paper focusing on the caribou naming practices of Inuit in Uqsuqtuuq (Gjoa Haven, Nunavut). It suggests management authorities and biologists might better understand local input and knowledge if they know more about how Inuit see and name caribou.
(2018)


Format: pdf

People

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and Inuit Nutrition Security in Canada

A 2018 academic paper examining the relationship between Inuit nutrition and caribou. It found that “Caribou was the top dietary source of protein in Nunavut (up to 35% of total intake) and the ISR [Inuvialuit Settlement Region]  and the second-most important in Nunatsiavut.
(2018)


Format: pdf

People

Statutory Report on Wildlife to the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut Section 176 of the Wildlife Act 2018

A 2018 report to the Nunavut Legislative Assembly on the state of wildlife in the territory. It includes a table (pp. 77-78) that lists “estimated demand for caribou, by herd, and the estimated level of capacity of that species to meet the demand.” The table shows that in many cases, demand exceeds capacity.
Government of Nunavut (2018)


Format: pdf

People

Caribou eaters

The Etthén Heldeli (Caribou Eaters) documentary produced in 2018 follows Dene caribou hunters who rely on the Ahiak, Qamanirjuaq, and Beverly herds. This website contains several resources associated with the documentary, including shorter (3-5 minute) videos.
(2018)


Format: web

People

Management Plan for Dolphin and Union Caribou in the NWT and Nunavut

This long 2018 management plan for Dolphin and Union Caribou is a joint effort between the NWT and Nunavut governments in cooperation with the Canadian government and several other organizations from both Nunavut and the Inuvialuit settlement area.  It details threats and proposed management actions.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2018)

mercury in seaweed - inuktitut

This two-page plain language summary in Inuktitut talks about mercury in seaweed and other food eaten by caribou in the Qamanirjuaq herd.
(2018)

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Format: pdf

Beverly and QaminirjuaqContaminants

Indigenous leadership in caribou conservation

A series of 14 interviews with northern Indigenous people talking about caribou and Indigenous knowledge, recorded during the 2018 North American Caribou Workshop. Interviews range from just under 8 minutes to more than 45 minutes.
IsumaTV (2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

Barren-groundPeople

Inuit Approaches to Naming and Distinguishing Caribou: Considering Language, Place, and Homeland toward Improved Co-management

An academic paper describing how the people of Uqsuqtuuq (Gjoa Haven) in Nunavut describe different sorts of caribou. These don't match up with how biologists describe the herds. The authors suggest that a better understanding of how local people describe caribou would help in management of the herds.
(2018)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Barren-groundPearyRange managementPeople

project caribou

subtitled "an educator's guide to wild caribou of North America", this 155 page book was produced by a collaboration between several governments. The first section gives a lot of basic information about caribou. A second section contains a series of classroom activities, with suggested appropriate grade levels for each activity. The third section, 'case studies' focuses on specific populations and herds.
(2018)

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Format: pdf

You Can Make a Difference - Caribou For the Future

This 23-minute video from 2017 was produced by the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. It includes several clips featuring Indigenous people who rely on the caribou herds.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2017)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeople

The Importance of Respectful Harvest

This 12 minute video is part one of the "You can make a difference" video produced by the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2017)

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Format: video

Beverly and QaminirjuaqManaging huntingPeopleHunting

Cumulative Effects

This 10-minute video is part three of the "You can make a difference" video produced by the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2017)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

Beverly and QaminirjuaqManaging huntingHunting

The Importance of Harvest Reporting

This 8-minute video is part two of the "You can make a difference" video produced by the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board  
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2017)

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Format: video

Beverly and QaminirjuaqManaging huntingHunting

SPECIES STATUS REPORT: Porcupine Caribou and Barren-ground Caribou

A lengthy NWT government Species at Risk assessment of barren-ground caribou and Porcupine caribou. It classifies the Porcupine caribou as “not at risk” in the NWT, and the other herds as “threatened” within the NWT. The assessment contains parallel tables that compare Indigenous and scientific knowledge on aspects of the caribou.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2017)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

PorcupineBeverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-ground

Caribou Sex Identification Card - Carte postale : Identification du caribou

A poster showing how to tell the difference between male and female caribou.  
Government of the Northwest Territories (2017)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Hunting

Determining Optimal Radio Collar Sample Sizes for Monitoring Barren-ground Caribou Populations

A 40-page 2017 academic study discussing how many radio collars would be necessary to track particular herds in the Northwest Territories.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2017)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: pdf

Barren-ground

Action Plan for the Bluenose-East Caribou Herd

A 56-page action plan for the Bluenose-east herd prepared by the wildlife management boards with stewardship responsibilities for barren-ground caribou and their habitat in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This is a follow-up to the 2014 management plan, "Taking Care of Caribou".
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2017)

Action Plan for the Bluenose-West Caribou Herd

A 62-page action plan for the Bluenose-west herd prepared by the wildlife management boards with stewardship responsibilities for barren-ground caribou and their habitat in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This is a follow-up to the 2014 management plan, "Taking Care of Caribou".
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2017)

Action Plan for the Cape Bathurst Caribou Herd

A 62-page action plan for the Cape Bathurst herd prepared by the wildlife management boards with stewardship responsibilities for barren-ground caribou and their habitat in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This is a follow-up to the 2014 management plan, "Taking Care of Caribou".
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2017)

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Dolphin and Union population in Canada 2017

Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (2017)

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Format: web

Dolphin and Union

Observed and predicted effects of climate change on Arctic caribou and reindeer

A 2017 academic paper that suggests climate effects on Arctic caribou and reindeer may balance out due to longer access to summer forage balancing the negative effects of climate change, though it also points out that climate effects are going to be different across the caribou range
University of Alberta (2017)

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Format: web

Management Plan for Peary Caribou in Nunavut

A 2017 lengthy Nunavut government submission to the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board on a management plan for Peary Caribou in Nunavut. The plan was to run from 2014-2020. It divides the caribou in Nunavut into nine different management units, and makes recommendations on harvest for each unit, and some other management actions that cover the whole population. Also includes a lot of feedback from community sources as it includes a consultation report.
(2017)

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Format: pdf

PearyManaging hunting

Wapusk National Park: Curious Caribou

A brief 2017 web feature on the herd. It is part of the Wapusk National Park website
Parks Canada (2017)

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Format: web

Cape Churchill

Mining Development, Migratory Caribou, and Land Use in Northern Québec

A 2017 interactive web-based resource that covers the George River and Leaf River caribou herds. The resource has various narratives about the herds, as well as maps that show the range of the caribou and how that overlaps with other things such as mining development, potential mining development and protected areas
Université Laval (2017)

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Format: web

A long time ago in the future: caribou and the people of Ungava

This document is the 2017 Ungava Peninsula Caribou Aboriginal Round Table strategy, devised by the several indigenous governments and organizations that share the herds. It has five action plans, listed in order of priority: 1) Indigenous Sharing Agreement; 2) Research and Monitoring Plan; 3) Habitat Management and Environmental Impact Plan; 4) Stewardship,Engagement, and Communication Plan; and, 5) Social and Economic Plan
NunatuKavut Community Council (2017)

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Format: pdf

Managing huntingRange management

NIRB Project Certificate No. 007

A 61-page 2017 document from the Nunavut Impact Review Board detailing the terms and conditions for approval of the Sabina Gold and Silver Corp’s Back River gold-mining project. The terms and conditions include several conditions relating to caribou protection
Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB) (2017)

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Format: pdf

Report to the Hunters of the Kivalliq Region Contaminants in Qamanirjuaq Caribou – September 2017

With the help of local hunters, we have been taking kidney, liver and muscle samples of Qamanirjuaq caribou since 2006. We collect these samples to study changes in the amount of contaminants such as mercury and lead in kidneys of caribou. These contaminants may be carried to the Arctic by wind.
(2017)

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Format: pdf

Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundPeopleContaminants

North America's Largest Herd of Caribou on the Move (360 Video)

A short 360 degree video showing migratory caribou in Nunavik moving toward calving grounds. It has commentary by David Suzuki giving some facts about the caribou.
CBC (2017)


Format: video

Eastern Migratory

Does Dust from Arctic Mines Affect Caribou Forage?

A 2017 paper assessing the impacts of dust from a mining haul road in the NWT on vegetation used by caribou. The paper concluded that dust from the road negatively affected the vegetation within a range of one kilometre.
(2017)


Format: web

Human disturbance

Wolf Technical Feasibility Assessment: Options for Managing Wolves on the Range of the Bathurst Barren-ground Caribou Herd

A 2017 assessment of options for wolf control on the range of the Bathurst caribou herd. Assessment criteria include humaneness, efficiency, effectiveness, and risks.
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2017)

Demography of an increasing caribou herd with restricted wolf control: Caribou Demography and Wolves

A 2017 academic paper on the Fortymile herd focusing on wolf predation and the impact of overgrazing on herd size. The paper counters earlier opinions that wolf control (lethal and non-lethal) had a significant impact on the herd’s growth. Paper available on request.
(2017)

Usage: On request
Format: web

FortymileManaging predatorsNatural factors

Detection of rain-on-snow (ROS) events and ice layer formation using passive microwave radiometry: A context for Peary caribou habitat in the Canadian Arctic

A 2017 academic paper that talks about the relationship between incidents of rain-on-snow and icing and Peary caribou populations.
(2017)


Format: pdf

Peary

VADZAIH – cooking caribou from antler to hoof

A caribou cookbook produced by the Porcupine caribou management board
Porcupine Caribou Management Board (2016)

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Format: pdf

PorcupineBarren-ground

General Approach to Harvest Modeling for Barren-ground Caribou Herds in the NWT and Recommendations on Harvest Based on Risk Status

A 39-page academic paper from 2016 designed to help assess the impact of hunting on barren-ground caribou herds, based on the population size and trend of a given herd.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2016)

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Format: pdf

Barren-groundManaging huntingHunting

Peary Caribou and Muskox Survey of the Melville-Prince Patrick Complex, Northwest Territories and Nunavut Summer 2012

A 21-page 2016 report on a 2012 aerial survey of Peary caribou and muskoxen on several Arctic islands shared by the NWT and Nunavut.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2016)

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Format: pdf

PearyWestern Queen ElizabethNatural factors

Sample Sizes of Collared Barren-ground Caribou to Estimate Herd Size in Winter and Fall Management Areas to Allow Assesment of Harvest Risk

A 2016 academic paper that analyzes how many caribou it is necessary to collar to reliably define proportions of each herd in harvest areas in fall and winter. It concludes that at least 20 collars are required per herd.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2016)

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Format: pdf

Barren-groundManaging huntingHunting

Technical Report on Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West and Bluenose-East Caribou Herds

A 90-page 2016 report presenting scientific knowledge and status of the Cape Bathurst, BluenoseWest and Bluenose-East caribou herds and gaps in knowledge.  One of two companion documents to "Taking Care of Caribou: The Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West and Bluenose-East Caribou Herds Management Plan"
Government of the Northwest Territories (2016)

Bathurst Caribou Range Plan Interim Discussion Document

A long 2016 document that was used as background for the development of the Bathurst Herd Range Plan. It includes a report from an Indigenous knowledge workshop on the herd. It also contains maps of current human disturbance of the herd, and projections for future human disturbance under different development scenarios.
Mackenzie Valley Review Board (2016)

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Format: pdf

Bathurst

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Caribou (Rangifer tarandus), Barren-ground population in Canada - 2016

The 2016 assessment report on barren-ground caribou prepared by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Species in Canada (COSEWIC). It is a long, thorough and quite technical overview. It resulted in the Canadian populations of barren-ground caribou being designated “threatened” under the federal government system
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (2016)

Report on the Bathurst Caribou Range Plan Traditional Knowledge Workshop 2016

Compendium of Indigenous knowledge centred around the Bathurst caribou herd, including perspectives of First Nations, Metis, and Inuit. “The purpose of the TK Workshop was to bring together TK experts from across the range of the Bathurst herd to discuss key issues, themes, concerns, and understandings related to the Bathurst caribou and their habitat.”
Government of the Northwest Territories (2016)

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Format: pdf

BathurstPeople

Biological status report of migratory caribou, Leaf River herd

A lengthy 2016 government of Quebec report on the Leaf River herd
Government of Quebec (2016)

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Format: pdf

Leaf River

We Live Here for Caribou

This 2016 report called “We Live Here For Caribou” is a medium length report on the Indigenous knowledge of elders and harvesters from Wekweti, a Tli’cho community in the Northwest Territories.It covers the Bathurst caribou herd and has long sections on changes in caribou that have been observed, including changes as a result of development. It concludes, “Contributors to the report unanimously identify the establishment of large-scale mines and associated industrial activities on the Bathurst caribou migration route and feeding grounds as the main factor behind caribou health defects and changes to their behaviour and migration.”
Tłı̨chǫ Government (2016)

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Format: pdf

Bathurst

Loss of connectivity among island-dwelling Peary caribou following sea ice decline

2016 scientific paper on the potential of climate change to make Peary caribou on the Canadian Arctic islands more isolated due to reduced periods of safe sea ice crossings. This isolation could make them more vulnerable.
Various (2016)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: web

Peary

Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations

Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations.
(2016)

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Format: pdf

Contaminants

Measurements of cesium in Arctic beluga and caribou before and after the Fukushima accident of 2011

Concern from northern communities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident of March 2011 has prompted a reassessment of the safety of their traditional foods with respect to radioactivity levels. To this end, a study was conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).
(2016)

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Format: pdf

PorcupineThreatsContaminants

Caribou, water, and ice – fine-scale movements of a migratory arctic ungulate in the context of climate change

A 2016 academic paper suggesting that migratory caribou may have to increase their migration distances by 28% by the end of the century due to projected changes in freeze-up and break-up of freshwater ice.
(2016)

Usage: Attribution
Format: web

Distribution and abundance of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on Devon Island, March 20

A poster from 2016 that talks about Peary caribou on Devon Island, although the focus is on Muskoxen numbers, and the potential to harvest more of them
Government of Nunavut (2016)


Format: pdf

Peary

caribou and community well-being (Gjoa Haven)

A web page with a variety of other resources centred on the link between the people of Gjoa Haven (Nunavut) and caribou. Resources on the page range from academic papers to a hand-drawn ink calendar showing the phases of local Inuit use of caribou.
Straight Up North (2016)

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Format: web

Beverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundAhiakBathurstLorillardWager BayPeople

Gwich'in Knowledge of Bluenose West Caribou

A 72-pge 2015 report by the Gwich'in Social and Cultural Institute on Gwich’in Traditional Knowledge of the Bluenose-West Caribou herd.
Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB) (2015)

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Format: pdf

Bluenose WestPeople

Joint Management Proposal for Bathhurst Caribou

A 2015 joint management proposal for the Bathurst caribou herd developed by the Tlicho Government and the government of the Northwest Territories. The plan covers 2016 to 2019, and recommends no harvesting of the herd, wolf control, and better monitoring of the herd
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2015)

FACT SHEET: Peary Caribou

A 2015 three-page fact sheet on Peary caribou produced by the Canadian government.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (2015)

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Format: pdf

Peary

Review of post-2010 Literature on Human Effects on Barren-Ground Caribou: Focus on Traditional Knowledge, Western Science and Caribou Protection Measures

This 2015 report prepared for the Nunavut Wildlife management Board reviews both scientific and traditional knowledge sources published from 2010-2015 on the effects of human disturbance on barren-ground caribou. It is organized by looking at linear features (such as roads, power lines and pipelines), resource development infrastructure (such as buildings or open pit mines), and aircraft and vehicles. It concludes that, “The impact of development on caribou is usually not due to single roads, mines, cut-blocks or seismic lines; rather, it is the cumulative effect of many habitat alterations including disturbances over time that affects caribou numbers and distribution.”
(2015)

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Format: pdf

Barren-ground

The Wind Waits for No one (Master's Thesis)

Masters thesis by Fibbie Tatti from Sahtu, including Indigenous knowledge about caribou, some contained in traditional stories
University of Victoria (2015)

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Format: pdf

People

Peary caribou and barren-ground caribou COSEWIC assessment and status report: chapter 10

This 2015 chapter from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada analyzes the available information on threats to Peary Caribou and barren-ground caribou
Environment and Climate Change Canada (2015)

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Format: web

Barren-groundPeary

NWMB Workshop Report: “Protecting Caribou and their Habitat”

This 2015 workshop report from the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board is on finding a balance between resource development and caribou in Nunavut. The report includes detailed information on the seasonal sensitivities for the different barren-ground caribou herds in Nunavut in Appendix A. Many of the files prepared for the workshop above with even more detailed information are available on the website of the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board.  
Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB) (2015)


Format: pdf

Human disturbance

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Peary Caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi in Canada

A 2015 assessment and status report on Peary caribou from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (2015)


Format: pdf

Peary

What Happened to the Beverly Caribou Herd after 1994?

A 2015 paper that argues that the Ahiak herd may have absorbed the Beverly herd.
(2015)

Caribou Hunt With Peter Suwaksiork

32 minute online video. Arviat elder Peter Suwaksiork and his son set out to find caribou. Along the way Peter tells stories about shamanism, traditional life, and the changes he has seen over the course of his lifetime. Includes footage of hunting and skinning caribou.
IsumaTV (2015)

Usage: Non-commercial with attribution
Format: video

Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeople

Aerial Survey of Peary Caribou and Muskoxen on Banks Island, July 2014

A 24-page report of an aerial survey of Peary caribou and muskoxen on Banks Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2014)

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Format: pdf

PearyBanks-VictoriaNatural factors

Weather-based Indices of Parasitic Fly Activity and Abundance for the Bathurst Caribou Post-calving and Summer Range: Users Guide

A specialized 2014 report on the linkages between climate and levels of insects that bother caribou on the post-caling/summer range of the Bathurst Caribou herd.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2014)

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Format: pdf

BathurstNatural factors

Engaging Bluenose Caribou Communities

This lengthy 2014 report contain notes from all the community meetings that fed into the management plan for three herds (Bluenose-East and West and Cape Bathurst). It is the result of consultation sessions in 17 communities in the NWT and Nunavut. It contains much Indigneous knowledge about the caribou, but the report cautions that it “...should not be seen as a complete record of the traditional and community knowledge that exists about these caribou.”
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2014)

The Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, and Bluenose-East Barren-ground Caribou Herds Management Plan

There is no management board for this herd, but there is a management plan. The plan was prepared under the authority of the Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management. This group brings together representatives of several renewable resources boards and committees in the NWT and Nunavut to address cross-boundary wildlife issues
Government of the Northwest Territories (2014)

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Format: pdf

BathurstBluenose WestBluenose EastBarren-ground

Taking Care of Caribou: The Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, and Bluenose-East Barren-ground Caribou Herds Management Plan

This 2014 management plan for three herds (Bluenose-East and West and Cape Bathurst) was created by the Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management (NWT). It says “While the immediate need for the plan was in response to reported declines in the herds, the intent is for the plan to address caribou management and stewardship over the long term. This plan was developed in consultation with most of the communities that harvest from the three herds.”
Government of the Northwest Territories (2014)

We have been Living with the Caribou all our Lives: a report on information recorded during community meetings

A 196-page report from 2014 from The Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management (a collection of wildlife management/renewable resources boards from the NWT and Nunavut). This report details community input to a management plan for the Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, and Bluenose-East herds
Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management (2014)

Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Plan 2013-2022

A 117-page plan published in 2014, that lays out management for the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds. There are also shorter summary versions of this plan available on the management board's website.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (2013)

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Format: web

Beverly and QaminirjuaqManaging huntingManaging predatorsRange management

Working together for Baffin Island Caribou

A brief 2013 workshop report which examines the causes and impacts of the decline of caribou on Baffin Island, and suggests some management measures.
Government of Nunavut (2013)

Ways We Respect Caribou: Teetł’it Gwich’in Rules

This 2013 academic paper is based on interviews with elders and hunters of the Teetł’it Gwich’in (Fort McPherson, NWT). It discusses rules governing caribou hunting as described by the elders, and compares that to the knowledge of younger hunters about these rules. It shows that younger hunters have a simpler, but similar understanding of the rules
University of Alberta (2013)

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Format: pdf

People

Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two parasitic nematodes in the Canadian Arctic.

This 2013 academic paper links increasing lungworm incidence in caribou to warming weather.
University of Calgary (2013)

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Format: web

Banks-Victoria

Traditional Knowledge: Barren-ground Caribou in the Northwest Territories

A 2013 report on traditional knowledge of caribou in the Northwest Territories. It covers topics including the peoples’ relationship to caribou, populations and abundance, threats, and management.
(2013)

FINAL REPORT of the Panel for the Substituted Environmental Impact Review of the Hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk, Town of Inuvik and GNWT - Proposal to Construct the Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk Highway

A long 2013 environmental impact assessment report on the construction of the Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk highway. The consideration of impacts on caribou, and board recommendations on dealing with these impacts begins on page 93.
Impact Assessment Agency of Canada (2013)

Forty Mile Caribou in the Dawson Region

A 30-page report from 2012 on the Yukon portion of the herd’s range. It includes discussion of the potential impacts of forest fires.
Yukon Department of Environment (2012)


Format: pdf

Fortymile

Renewing our traditional laws through joint ekwǫ (caribou) management

This 2012 publication is adapted from remarks by Yellowknives Dene hunter Fred Sangris. He covers many subjects including the relationship of Dene to the caribou, traditional laws governing relations with caribou, threats to caribou, and management issues
Rangifer (2012)

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Assessing risk of mercury exposure and nutritional benefits of consumption of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation community of Old Crow, Yukon, Canada

The contamination of traditional foods with chemical pollutants is a challenge to the food security ofAboriginal Peoples.
(2011)

Usage: On request
Format: pdf

PorcupinePeopleContaminants

Observation of Arctic island barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) migratory movement delay due to human induced sea-ice breaking

A short 2013 paper on observations of the behaviour of the Dolphin and Union Herd when confronted by a channel on their migration route over sea ice kept open by an icebreaker. The paper says, “The addition of new stress during the fall migration through anthropogenic disruption of the sea-ice formation could have cumulative impacts on the herd with unknown consequences for the herd survival.”
Government of Nunavut (2011)

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Format: pdf

PearyDolphin and Union

Population Ecology of Caribou Populations without Predators: Southampton and Coats Island Herds

This paper is a review of the ecology of two caribou populations inhabiting predator-free northern islands, Coats and Southampton Island.
(2011)

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Format: pdf

Coats IslandSouthampton IslandNatural factors

Biomagnification of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Remote Terrestrial Food Chain: Lichen-Caribou-Wolf

The biomagnification behavior of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) was studied in terrestrial food webs consisting of lichen and plants, caribou, and wolves from two remote northern areas in Canada. Six PFCAs with eight to thirteen carbons and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were regularly detected in all species.
(2011)

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Format: pdf

PorcupineBathurstContaminants

Migratory tundra caribou seasonal and annual distribution relative to Thaidene Nene

Brief 2011 report on the use of Thaidene Nene National Park (NWT) by the Ahiak and Bathurst herds
Parks Canada (2011)


Format: pdf

AhiakBathurst

Denésoliné (Chipewyan) Knowledge of Barren-Ground Caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) Movements

An academic paper from 2010 on the Indigenous knowledge of caribou from elders and hunters in Lutsel K’e in the Northwest Territories. Forest fires, mining development, and failure to comply with traditional practices are all noted as influences on caribou abundance.
Lutsel K'e Dene First Nation (2010)

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Format: pdf

Barren-groundPeople

Living with Caribou

A 16 page report published in 2010 that talks about the documentation of traditional knowledge of caribou in the Sahtu region of the Northwest Territories from 2005-2010. It talks about the values of collecting such knowledge, and about the nature of the knowledge that was gathered, and how it was used
Wekʼèezhìi Renewable Resources Board (WRRB) (2010)

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Format: pdf

People

Kivallirmiut (Caribou Inuit)

An online encyclopaedia article, updated in 2016, on the Kivallirmiut (Caribou Inuit) who live in the Kivalliq region of Nunavut. These people were different from other Canadian Inuit in that they relied mostly on caribou instead of coastal resources.
Various (2010)

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Format: web

People

Three Decades of Caribou Recovery Programs in Yukon: A Paradigm Shift in Wildlife Management

A relatively brief paper published by the Yukon government in 2009, it summarizes the experience of the managing five different Yukon herds (mostly non-migratory). It suggests that both harvest management and wolf management have been effective methods, and emphasises that managing impacts on herds, such as development and harvest impacts are preferable to costly recovery programs
Yukon Department of Environment (2009)

CAFF Voices Project

A series of many lengthy wide-ranging interviews on video ( average about 25 minutes) with individuals in communities dependent on caribou. The videos were shot in 2008. Canadian communities involved were: Old Crow (Yukon); Arviat (Nunavut); Lutsel K’e and Wekweti (NWT)
CAFF (2008)


Format: video

People

Sea-ice crossings by caribou in the south-central Canadian Arctic Archipelago and their ecological importance

An academic paper from 2005 that looks at the movements of peary caribou between islands, and between islands and the mainland. The paper speculates that a shorter sea ice season driven by climate change, and increased shipping around the Arctic islands accompanied by ice-breaking could both lead to losses of island caribou.
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (2005)

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Format: pdf

Peary

Being Caribou

This one hour and twelve minute 2004 video follows a couple who follow the migration of the Porcupine caribou herd. It was prompted by the threat of development in the calving grounds of the caribou
National Film Board (2004)

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Format: video

Porcupine

The Flux of Trust: Caribou Co-Management in Northern Canada

An academic paper from 2003 that looks at aspects of co-management of caribou, largely based on the writer’s experience in Lutsel K’e in the Northwest Territories. It emphasises the need for Indigenous knowledge to be properly integrated into management decisions, and the need for trust between participants in co-management.
Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) (2003)

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People

Dogrib Knowledge on Placenames, Caribou and Habitat

A long 2002 paper on Dogrib (Tlicho) place names. It discusses how caribou are embedded in many place names.
Government of the Northwest Territories (2002)

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Format: pdf

People

Project Caribou - Beverly and Qamanirjuaq

An educator's guide to wild caribou of North America
Yukon Department of Environment (2000)

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Format: pdf

Beverly and Qaminirjuaq

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from the Canadian Arctic

The presence of contaminants in the Arctic environment has raised concerns regarding levels in wildlife and possible effects on the health of wildlife populations. In addition, contaminants in wild foods are of particular concern to those people who rely on these foodstuffs for a significant portion of their diet. Among the most toxic contaminants found in the environment are the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (NOPCBs).
(1995)

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BathurstSouthampton IslandContaminants

Cadmium in caribou and muskoxen from the Canadian Yukon and Northwest Territories

Cadmium, zinc, copper and metallothionein concentrations were measured in liver and kidney tissue of caribou and muskoxen collected from various sites in the Canadian Yukon and Northwest Territories. Cadmium concentrations in caribou tissues were substantially higher than in muskoxen for all age classes and were comparable to concentrations reported for caribou from northern Quebec and Norway.
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (1994)

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PorcupineBeverly and QaminirjuaqBarren-groundContaminants

A review of Fire Management on Forested Range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Herd of Caribou

This 1994 report from the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board discusses fire management issues on the forested part of the herds’ ranges.
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board (1994)

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Format: pdf

Beverly and Qaminirjuaq

Mushuau Innu learn to hunt caribou in Labrador

A 26 minute video produced by CBC program "Land and Sea" about Mushuau Innu living in Labrador, with a focus on their relationship with caribou. The video is entirely narrated, and dated in style and terminology, but shows some traditional hunting practices.
CBC (1979)

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Format: video

Eastern MigratoryPeople

Caribou of Northern Canada

This 1971 13 minute film from the Canadian Wildlife Service has some dated information, but good basic information on the lifecycle of the barren-ground caribou.
Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) (1971)

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Format: video

Barren-ground

Tuktu- 10- The Caribou Hunt

A 1968 National Film Board of Canada production, this 14 minute film shows traditional caribou hunting techniques of the Netsilik Inuit
National Film Board (1968)

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Format: video

Managing huntingPeople

At the Caribou Crossing Place: Part 1

This 1971 30 minute film follows a Netsilik Inuit family from Pelly Bay (now Kugaaruk) in Nunavut, including skinning caribou. There is no narration or subtitles, the whole piece is in the local dialect of Inuktitut. A second part shows a group of men building inuksuit (stone figures) to help herd the caribou toward the water, where they are speared
National Film Board (1967)

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Format: video

People

At the Caribou Crossing Place: Part 2

This 1971 30 minute film follows a Netsilik Inuit family from Pelly Bay (now Kugaaruk) in Nunavut, including skinning caribou. There is no narration or subtitles, the whole piece is in the local dialect of Inuktitut. A second part shows a group of men building inuksuit (stone figures) to help herd the caribou toward the water, where they are speared
National Film Board (1967)

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Format: video

People

the refuge

This is a series of podcasts (11 altogether), most about half an hour long, focusing on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, calving ground of the Porcupine caribou herd. This in-depth series looks at the ongoing push to allow oil and gas development in the refuge. It includes the voices of Indigenous peoples who live nearby, and depend on the caribou herd. The series started in 2019, and updates were added in 2020 and 2021.
Threshold (202)

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Format: web

PorcupineBarren-groundRange managementClimate changeHuman disturbance

Education Resources and Teacher Tools: Caribou for the Future

These undated resources are focused on the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds, but a lot of the information would be transferable to other migratory herds. There are three poster/fact sheet/video units covering respectful harvesting, harvest reporting, and cumulative effects (of factors that influence caribou decline). There are also contests and other information for students that live in the caribou range.  
Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board

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Format: web

Beverly and QaminirjuaqPeople

FACT SHEET: Satellite collaring barren ground caribou

A 2-page fact sheet from the Government of the Northwest Territories explaining the use of radio collars on caribou.
Government of the Northwest Territories

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Format: pdf

Beverly and QaminirjuaqBathurstBluenose WestBluenose East

Bathurst Caribou Range Plan - Response

A response by Canadian Arctic Resources Committee to the Bathurst Herd Range Plan
Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC)

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Format: web

BathurstManaging huntingManaging predatorsRange management

Barren-ground Caribou

A website giving information on the barren-ground herds in the NWT.
Government of the Northwest Territories

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Format: web

Barren-ground

Moccasins on the Ground

Lutsel K'e Dene First Nation

Traditional animal foods of Indigenous Peoples of northern North America

A website compiling several sources, mostly academic papers, that deal with the importance of caribou as a resource for Indigenous peoples. It includes information on: hunting practices; preferred parts and preparation of caribou as food; Beliefs and taboos, and other (non-food) uses made of caribou. It covers several First Nations and Inuit regions.
McGill University

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Format: web

People

Peary Caribou

An undated two page fact sheet from the Government of Nunavut, in English and Inuktitut.
Government of Nunavut

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Format: pdf

Peary

Hunting caribou in the fall

A 4':05" video on traditional knowledge of Inuit regarding hunting caribou in the fall. In Inuktitut with English subtitles.
Government of Nunavut

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Format: video

Managing hunting

FACT SHEET: Fortymile Caribou Herd

A five-page undated fact sheet on the herd, concentrating on the Indigenous knowledge of the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation
Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in Heritage Sites

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Format: pdf

FortymilePeople

Barren-ground co-management in the Northwest Territories

This 20-page document from the Government of the Northwest Territories gives an overview of how co-management bodies in the NWT participate in management of the nine barren-ground caribou herds found in the territory.
Government of the Northwest Territories

Enhanced North Slave Wolf Harvest Incentive Program

The enhanced North Slave wolf harvest program run by the Government of the Northwest Territories in the range of the Bathurst and Bluenose-East caribou herds.
Government of the Northwest Territories

Frequently Asked Questions: The Porcupine caribou and development in ANWR

An undated recent “frequently asked questions” document from the Yukon Government on the opening up of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (calving ground of the Porcupine caribou herd) to industrial development.
Yukon Department of Environment

10 traditional protocols of caribou hunting

This five-page document provides ten protocols for hunting caribou as described by the Dënesųłıné (Chipewyan) people, and include commentary from elders to help explain the protocols.


Format: pdf

People

Barren-ground Caribou in the NWT: Bathurst herd

This is a two-page fact sheet on the herd from the Government of the Northwest Territories. Undated but recent.
Government of the Northwest Territories


Format: pdf

Bathurst